Margao or Margao also known as Madgao is the second largest city by population, and the commercial and cultural capital of the Indian state of Goa. It is the administrative headquarters of Salcete sub- district and South Goa district. Margao Municipal Council has total administration over 21,406 houses to which it supplies basic amenities like water and sewerage. It is also authorize to build roads within Municipal Council limits and impose taxes on properties coming under its jurisdiction. Population of Children with age of 0-6 is 8688 which is 9.91% of total population of Margao (M Cl). In Margao Municipal Council, Female Sex Ratio is of 976 against state average of 973. Moreover Child Sex Ratio in Margao is around 965 compared to Goa state average of 942. Literacy rate of Margao city is 91.09% higher than state average of 88.70%. In Margao, Male literacy is around 93.58 % while female literacy rate is 88.54%. By road, Margao is located approximately 33 km (21 mi) from the capital Panjim , and 27 km (17 mi) from Vasco da Gama. Portuguese style mansions dot its landscape. Ponda Taluka shifted from North Goa to South Goa in January 2015. Out of total population, 35,656 were engaged in work or business activity. Of this 25,846 were males while 9,810 were females. In census survey, worker is defined as person who does business, job, service, and cultivator and labor activity. Of total 35656 working population, 91.70% were engaged in Main Work while 8.30% of total workers were engaged in Marginal Work. Fishing employs about 40,000 people in the state, though recent official figures indicate a decline of the importance of this sector and also a fall in catch, due perhaps, to traditional fishing giving way to large-scale mechanized trawling. Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas, with decreased tourist activity inland. In 2010, there were more than 2 million tourists reported to have visited Goa. Medium scale industries include the manufacturing of pesticides, fertilizers, tires, tubes, footwear, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, wheat products, steel rolling, fruits and fish canning, cashew nuts, textiles, brewery products. Nestled on the banks of the Sal River. Most of Goas soil cover is made up of laterites rich in ferric-aluminium oxides and reddish in colour. Further inland and along the riverbanks, the soil is mostly alluvial and loamy. The soil is rich in minerals and humus, thus conducive to agriculture. Some of the oldest rocks in the Indian subcontinent are found in Goa between Molem and Anmod on Goas border with Karnataka. Margão in pre-Portuguese times was one of the important settlements in Salcete and known as Matha Grama (the village of Mathas) as it was a temple town with nine Mathas in temple schools. Its replacement in 1579 was destroyed by raiders along with the seminary that had been built alongside it. The present church was built in 1675.