Coimbatore, also known as Kovai, is the 2nd largest city of the State of Tamil Nadu. The city is surrounded by the Western Ghats and is located on the banks of the River Noyyal, at an elevation of more than 1300 feet. The population is more than 1 million and the official and most widely spoken language here is Tamil. The literacy rate is 91%. To the north lie the forest reserves of the Nilgiri Hills, and the city is the base for travel up towards the hills. Coimbatore was located along the ancient Roman trade route that extended from Muziris (on the Malabar Coast) to Arikamedu (near modern Puducherry), serving as the eastern entrance to the Palakkad Gap. The region was part of Kongu Nadu during the Sangam period (1st to 4th century) and was later ruled by the Cheras, Cholas, Vijayanagara Empire and the Nayaks. In the later part of the 18th century, the Coimbatore region came under the Kingdom of Mysore and following the defeat of Tipu Sultan in the Anglo-Mysore Wars, the British East India Company annexed Coimbatore to the Madras Presidency in 1799. In 1804, Coimbatore was established as the capital of the newly formed Coimbatore district. The city experienced a textile boom in the early 19th century due to the decline of the cotton industry in Mumbai. "Kovai Cora Cotton" is recognized as a “Geographical Indication” by the Government of India. Rapid Industrialization continued after independence and Coimbatore has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city. According to the 2011 census, the total population of the district is 3.4 million, the literacy rate is 84% and 45% are in the working age. This includes the 20 percent that are engaged in agriculture, 3 percent in the household industry and the bulk 77 percent working in industry and services. The city is the 2nd largest producer of Software in Tamil Nadu after Chennai, is renowned for diamond cutting and one of the largest exporters of cast and machine made jewellery, meets 50% of Indias demand of pumps , is known for its textile, poultry and automotive components industries.