Aurangabad is one of the most important and ancient cities of the Aurangabad district of the Indian state of Maharashtra. The city has a total population of 1.1 million and ranks as the 5th largest city of Maharashtra and the 32nd most populous city of India. The literacy rate is over 87 percent and Marathi is the most widely spoken language. As per the 2011 census, Aurangabad district has a total population of 3.7 million; a literacy rate of 79 percent and 43 percent of the total population participate in the workforce. This includes the bulk 60 percent in the agriculture sector, 2 percent in the household industry and 38 percent in services and industry. Traditionally, Aurangabad is famous for silk and cotton textile production and is now emerging as a prominent location for the Information Technology and Manufacturing Industries. Tourism is a significant contributor to the economy since the district has numerous sights of great historical significance, foremost amongst them being the Ajanta and Ellora caves, a Unesco World Heritage site. Buddhism was first introduced in this region by the Buddhist missionary named Maha Dharma Rakshita, who used to narrate the story of the Maha Naradakassapa Jataka to the locals during the reign of Emperor Ashoka. Besides Ajanta, Buddhist caves have been found in Pitalkhora, 80 Kms. from Aurangabad. After the death of Ashoka, the Satavahanas rose to power in the Deccan region and made Pratishthana (Paithan) as their Capital. Their flourishing kingdom stretched across Pune, Nashik, Ahmadnagar, Aurangabad and Jalna districts. The earliest group of caves at Ajanta date back to the Satavahana age and are mentioned by the Chinese pilgrim, Hiuen Tsang. Aurangabad lies on a major trade route that used to connect northwest Indias sea and land ports to the Deccan region. The region was part of the Chalukaya kingdom and from the early 13th century onwards, Muslim rulers invaded the region, conquering numerous forts. After the death of Emperor Bahadur Shah in 1711, civil war broke in the region leading to Nizam-ul-Mulk becoming the Viceroy of the Deccan and founding the Nizam dynasty which ruled from Hyderabad till 1948. The culture of Aurangabad has historically been influenced by Hyderabad. The city is famous for the 52 gateways built during Mughal era, which give it the name of "City of Gates". Other important historical sites include the Panchakki, a 17th-century water mill, known for its underground water channel and the Bibi ka Maqbara, also popularly known as the Mini Taj of the Deccan, containing the tomb of Aurangzebs wife, Rabia-ud-Durrani.