Ranchi is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement, which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. Ranchi has a total population of 10,73,427.
The highest employment in the district is in Engineering, Wood based, Repairing and servicing, Textile, Agro based, Leather based and Chemical industries. The district has 51% of the workforce employed in the Agricultural Sector, 46% in the Industrial Sector and the remaining 3% are Household workers.
The district of Ranchi at present consists of 2 subdivisions viz., Ranchi & Bundu and 18 Community Development Blocks, viz., Burmu, Mandar, Chanho, Bero, Lapung, Ratu, Namkum, Kanke, Ormanjhi, Angara, Khelari, Nagri, Itki, Silli, Rahe, Sonahatu, Tamar-I, Bundu. Presently there are 15 towns in the district. Ranchi (M. Corp.) is the principal town and the headquarters of the district as also of the South Chotanagpur division as well as Jharkhand state.
It is divided into Ranchi and Bundu subdivisions and each subdivision is further divided into blocks, panchayats and villages. It consists of 18 C.D. Blocks and 303 panchayats. Under Ranchi Sub-Division, there are 14 C.D. Blocks blocks and Bundu Subivision consists of 4 C.D. Blocks. It has also 15 towns (2 statutory and 13 Census Towns).
The fertile land comprises of red and yellow soil with some amount of sand. But most of the terrains are rocky covered with pebbles. This acts as check on fertility of soil. Ranchi district is surrounded by Purulia district (West Bengal) in east, by Lohardaga, Gumla, and Palamau in west, by Hazaribagh in north and by Singhbhum and Khunti districts in south. The rivers like Swarnrekha, Koyal and Damodar flow through the district and water is used for irrigation purpose.