With a total population of more than 4,30,000 and a literacy rate of over 76%, Kurnool is the fifth most populous city in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, serving as the headquarters of the Kurnool district. Telugu is the most spoken language in the region. Kurnool is located on the banks of the River Tungabhadra at an elevation of about 899 feet. Kurnool district is blessed with good mineral resources including Iron Ore, Dolomite, Lime Stone, Ochre, Quartz, Steatite and silica. Major exportable items from this region are granite slabs, polished stones, rice and other agricultural produce. As per the 2011 census, the population of the Kurnool district is 4 million, the literacy rate is 50 percent and 50 percent of the population is in the working age. This includes the 66 percent that are engaged in the agriculture sector, 3 percent in the household industry and 31 percent that are engaged in industry and services. Agriculture is the main source of livelihood in the district. The archaeological site of Ketavaram, 18 kilometers outside Kurnool city has evidence of Rock paintings from the Paleolithic Period. The region developed as one of the major settlements on the southern bank of the Tungabhadra River under the rule of the Cholas and Kakatiyas. Kurnool served as the capital of Andhra Pradesh before Hyderabad from 1953-1956.