Indian History Poem- Part 36: In Retrospect- What the British thought about their Rule in India.
19-02-2018 11:04 AM
This is the final part of the rare book titled, ‘Metrical Analysis of Indian History’ written by an anonymous English University Graduate published by George Bell and Sons, Bombay, in 1897 for the price of one shilling. The poem ends in 1894 A.D., three years before this publication. It gives an overview of the changes that were slowly but steadily taking place in India which were moving towards the freedom movement; like that of election of Indians in parliament, civic bodies, economic and education Boards. It touches upon the topics of Currency Act of 1893 and tax upon imports in the year 1894. At the end of this long metrical the author talks in retrospect and discusses what the British intentions were when they arrived in India and how they have changed their perspective; now believing that justice and benevolence is the key to their successful present and future rule in India. The first image is the political map of India under the British and the second is that of a skirmish during the Chitral expedition. Indian Members of Parliament 1892 A.D. The Indian nation felt great joy When the news came that Dadabhoy Naoroji had been made M. P. By radicals of Finsbury. 1895 A.D. In ninety-five he lost his seat; But, to atone for his defeat, We've still an Indian M. P. In Mr. M. M. Bhownuggree. Indian Councils Acts 1892 A.D. The Councils Act of ninety-two To Indian Councils adds a few Elected members chosen by District board, university, Merchants or civic corporation To give their views on legislation. Currency Act June 26th 1893 A.D. In hope to raise the fallen 'rupee The mints were closed in ninety-three; Though this was done in its defence, It fell as low as thirteen pence. Now it has risen to one and two; But who knows what it next will do? Chitral 1895 A.D. Chitral, since Elgin's rule begun, Has by our troops in war been won. Tax upon Imports 1894 A.D. A tax on imports has been laid To mend at the expense of trade The havoc the rupee's mischances Have wrought in Indian finances. Retrospect. With this exception we may say The country's in a prosperous way. Years eight and thirty battle sounds Have been unheard in India's bounds. These years have seen her wealth increase By progress in the arts of peace. Her numbers quickly multiply But don't outrun the food-supply. For eighteen years grim Famine's hand Has spared the people of the land. During this time of peace the nation Has much advanced in education, And far more Natives than of old Can government appointments hold. When England first to India came Her chief and almost only aim Was wealth. But as her empire grew, Her rulers took a nobler view Of what became them in their station As rulers of a mighty nation, And by degrees have come to know, What Akbar mastered long ago, That a great empire's best defence Is Justice and Benevolence. THE END
Indian History Poem- Part 35: Violence in Russia, Burma, Manipur and Bombay.
17-02-2018 10:23 AM
The 35th part of the rare 1897 metrical analysis Indian History poem describes the events that followed Lord Ripon’s departure. It was a period marked with conquests and violence. It was inclusive of events such as the massacre at Burma, Manipur during British conquests and religious riots in Mumbai, then Bombay. Image 1: Surrender of Pasha Arabi Image 2: King Thibaw and his family leaving Mandalay. Indian Contingent in Egypt 1883 A.D. A year before Lord Ripon went, An Indian contingent sent To Egypt, when the battle's done, To Cairo marching swiftly on The hostile city occupy And capture Pasha Arabi. Lord Dufferin, Viceroy 1884 A.D. Lord Dufferin to India came, Chosen for his diplomatic fame. Russian complications 1885 A.D. Russia consented to define The northern Afghan frontier line; But Komaroff with violence Seized Penjdeh, drove the Afghans thence And many killed. The war seemed near. At Rawalpindi the Amir Declared he'd fight upon our side, If Russia England's might defied. Like promises of loyal aid The Indian princes freely made. Delimitation of Frontier. But Russia now to peace inclined, And so the frontier was defined. Conquest of Upper Burma. Theebaw, the King of Burma, long Had done his subjects cruel wrong, And had by his intrigues with France Provoked the British to advance. November 14th 1885 A.D. - Nov 29th 1885 A.D. An outrage done to British trade, An ultimatum not obeyed Across his southern frontier brought A British army. Feebly fought The Burmese. On the fifteenth day The British flag o'er Mandalay Was flying. King Theebaw was sent To live in Indian banishment. 1886 A.D. Next year his realm annexed increased The British Empire in the East. Pacification of Upper Burma. Burma, though conquered easily Took a long time to pacify. Though thirty thousand soldiers hold The country, bands of robbers bold Right up to Rangoon burned and killed, And all the land with bloodshed filled. At last the cause of order won And commerce to revive begun. Houses and factories were erected And tillage was no more neglected. Ere long, it's hoped, the province new Will yield an ample revenue. Lord Dufferin retires and his work 1888 A.D. Lord Dufferin in eighty-eight Retired. His services were great, For peace with honour was his care, When warlike rumours filled the air. Of rupees many lakhs expended Rendered the frontier well defended, Among the measures of defence Some Princes at their own expense. Imperial Service Troops Imperial Service Troops prepare In frontier wars to take their share. The Marquis of Lansdowne, Viceroy. Lansdowne the bounds of Empire far Did not extend, nor mighty war Avert from India, yet his rule Was of events of interest full. Royal Visitors 1889- 90 A.D. The Prince of Wales's son and heir And Russia's Czarewitch both were Among his guests. To death were done Manipur Massacre 1891 A.D. At Manipur in ninety-one English officials. Such a crime Was punished without loss of time. 1803 A.D. The Amir a reception grand Gave to Sir Mortimer Durand. Religious Riots August 1893 A.D. There were some petty frontier wars; But worse were the internal jars, When in the cities Mussalman And Hindu civil strife began. Three days in Bombay warfare raged With knives and stones and bludgeons waged Spite of two thousand foot and horse Called out to conquer force by force.
Indian History Poem- Part 34: Cyclone, Famines, Invasions and Lord Ripon.
16-02-2018 09:57 AM
The 34th part of the Indian History poem, 1897 A.D., a rare metrical analysis of the Indian History now moves towards the period in which India overall faced very hard times. It was a period in which famines and cyclones had ravaged India in South as well as West. It also refers to the Afghan wars, visit of the Prince of Wales to India and the good Lord Ripon’s liberal policies inclusive of the Ilbert bill. The first Image is of arrival of Prince of Wales in India in 1875 A.D. and second is a photograph of John Burke of the Treaty of Gandamak on May 26, 1879 between Mohammad Yakub Khan and Sir Pierre Cavagnari. The Prince of Wales in India 1875 A.D. The second son of England's Queen In Mayo's time had India seen. ‘Twas greater joy in seventy-five To see the Prince of Wales arrive. Where his equestrian statue stands, The greeting given him as he lands Is well portrayed. In princely pride The Rajas with each other vied, And gold and jewels did not spare In welcoming the Empire's heir. Mulhar Rao warned and deposed 1874-1875 A.D. Mulhar Rao, warned he'd be removed Unless his government improved, Was next suspected of intent To poison Phayre, the Resident, And by a mixed commission tried, Which could not on his guilt decide. So Salisbury for misrule alone Deprived him of Baroda's throne. Lord Lytton and Sher Ali 1876 A.D. Lord Lytton came from home with orders To make the Afghans in their borders Take English officers, although Sher Ali always answered "No" To such requests, declaring he Could not their safety guarantee, On his refusal he was told The British would their aid withhold. Proclamation of the Empress 1877 A.D. On the first day of seventy-seven O'er Delhi's towers the skies were riven, When the loud cannon's voice proclaimed The Queen was India's Empress named. Turning from this assembly bright What dismal visions meet our sight! Bengal Cyclone Waves 1876 A.D. In Bengal's low alluvial soil Two cyclone waves destroy the toil Of thousands, and the toilers' lives, Their homes, their children, and their wives. Famine in Western and Southern India 1876-1877 A.D. Before the closing of the year In Bombay and Madras 'twas clear That famine raged, and thousands went To earn the pittance government On its relief works offered those Who suffered from starvation's throes. But, spite of all that man could do, The famine some five millions slew. Embassy to Sher Ali 1878 A.D. In seventy-eight, when it was known Some Russians had to Kabul gone, Without his leave our government A mission to Sher Ali sent, Which Ali Musjid's garrison Refused permission to go on. Sher Ali now must give consent To take a mission permanent. Invasion of Afghanistan 1878 A.D. No answer given to this demand, The British troops invade his land. February 1879 A.D. His troops o'ercome, Sher Ali flies Northwards and there next year he dies. Attack on the Residency September 1879 A.D. To Yakub Khan, his heir, is sent Cavagnari as Resident, Who in September with his train By Afghan mutineers is slain. Renewal of War October and Occupation of Kabul 1879 A.D. Roberts, to punish such a crime, Advances without loss of time, At Charasia the mutineers Defeats and in Kabul appears. His troops the Afghans overawe And many hang by martial law. Yakub Khan to Mussoorie goes. The Afghans in December rose, But Roberts all attacks repelled And his position firmly held. Sir Donald Stewart a column brought From Kandahar in spring and fought Ahmad Khel April 1880 A.D. At Ahmad Khel an army large Whose furious ghazis vainly charge. Sher Ali's brother, Ayub Khan, The siege of Kandahar began, Maiwand When he had routed at Maiwand In July Burrows' scanty band. Battle of Kandahar August 9th-31st to September 1st 1880 A.D. Roberts in two and twenty days From Kabul marched the siege to raise And won with ease at Kandahar The final battle of the war. Lord Ripon, Viceroy and Abdul Rahman July 1880 A.D. Meanwhile Lord Lytton had gone home, A Liberal Viceroy had come, Lord Ripon, who Afghanistan Gave up to Abdul Rahman Khan. Liberal Policy 1881 A.D. – 1883 A.D. Lord Ripon, by his policy Tried native claims to satisfy, He did to native rule restore The prosperous Kingdom of Mysore. Local self-government he gave, Nor would the native press enslave. The much debated Ilbert bill Gave greater satisfaction still; After much waste of verbal fury 'Twas settled a half-English jury To Englishmen of crime accused, Who claimed it, should not be refused. Lord Ripon’s Departure 1884 A.D. When Ripon's time came to depart He found he'd won the nation's heart.
Indian History Poem- Part 33: Government of India by the Crown and Famines during the British Raj.
15-02-2018 10:46 AM
The 33rd part from the rare Indian History Poem, 1897 A.D. chronicles the Government of India Act 1858 followed by Queen Victoria’s proclamation through which the power vested on East India company was liquidated and now transferred to the sole authority of the Crown. It also refers to events like death of Dost Khan, the Emir of Afghanistan, famines in Orissa and Bengal as well as tax levied on salt by Lord Mayo. The first image is a photograph by W.W. Hooper titled ‘Child born of famine-stricken mother age: 3 years weight 3 pounds’. This image represents the condition of the Indian populace during the famines which occurred during the British rule. The second image is of Queen Victoria’s Proclamation, 1858 A.D. India transferred to the Crown November 1858 A.D. While the rebellion dwindled down, India was taken by the Crown. The Queen by solemn proclamation Then promised to the Indian nation Their ancient customs to respect And as State servants to select Such Natives as were fitted most For holding each official post. The Native States that true remained Large gifts of land and honour gained. The granting of adoption's right Their apprehensions put to flight. Lord Canning’s Departure 1862 A.D. Order and law once more prevailed, And, ere Lord Canning homeward sailed, Railways and telegraphs and trade Resumed the progress war bad stayed. Lord Elgin Viceroy and the Ambela Campaign 1863 A.D. Lord Elgin ruled a year and died. In his time frontier tribes defied Two months the troops of Chamberlain; Ambela Pass saw many slain. John Lawrence, Viceroy 1864 A.D. John Lawrence was a Viceroy shrewd Who always sought the people's good. A Bhutan war with loss begun Yielded a strip of land when won. Dost Muhammad dies 1863 A.D. When Dost Muhammad died, his throne Was fought for by Afghans alone. His Successor The battle verdict made it clear They wished Sher Ali as Amir. British support, when this was known, Fixed him more firmly on his throne. Famine in Orissa 1866 A.D. The famine in Orissa taught That Indian roads and railways ought To be extended, so that aid To starving mouths might be conveyed. Mayo and Sher Ali 1869 A.D. Lord Mayo at Ambala met The Afghan Prince, who failed to get The aid he wanted. Yet his warm Reception and the Viceroy's charm Of manner won the Afghan chief. Soon after, to his great relief, The Russians made a promise plain They would from Afghan lands abstain. Financial Measures 1869- 70 A.D. To mend the state of the finances Mayo the tax on salt enhances, And by an income tax offends His Indian and his English friends. Death of Lord Mayo 1872 A.D. At the Andamans a Pathan knife Deprived Lord Mayo of his life. Princes and people loved him dearly, And mourned the Viceroy's death sincerely. Lord Northbrook and the Finances. Of banker origin Northbrook Great care of the finances took. Without the income tax's aid Each year a large surplus was made, The Bengal Famine 1874 A.D. Except when millions six were spent The deaths of millions to prevent And bring the Bengal peasants food, From districts blessed with harvests good.
Indian History Poem- Part 32: The Great Mutiny 1857 A.D.
14-02-2018 11:20 AM
The 32nd part from the rare book ‘Metrical Analysis of Indian History’, 1897 elucidates the events leading to and which occurred during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 A.D. Image 1: Hanging of the Indian Revolutionaries, 1857 A.D. Image 2: A portrait of Tantya Tope. Causes of the Mutiny The sepoys' minds were much excited With fears and wrongs they wanted righted, The Enfield cartridges, they feared, With fat of cows and pigs were smeared. The Punjab, Sind seemed far away To serve in without extra pay. The telegraph and railway trains Raised strange suspicions in their brains. Old prophecies their minds perplexed. They grieved o'er Native States annexed. The horrors of the Afghan war Made them distrust the British star. The Russian war had left, they knew, In India English troops too few. Outbreak at Meerut At Meerut on the tenth of May Three regiments rebel and slay Their officers, and unpursued To Delhi their escape make good. Delhi With all the sepoys there united The old Mughal they have invited To raise his standard and have slain What English in the place remain. All o’er Bengal the sepoys rose. Cawnpur At Cawnpur Nana Sahib they chose To be their chief. The English seek Refuge in an entrenchment weak. Lucknow In Oudh, when Henry Lawrence falls, They man the Residency walls. Where’er the sepoys win the day, Woman and man and child they slay. Siege of Delhi June 8th 1857 A.D The rebels did not Delhi hold Long unopposed. Ere June was old, The Ridge was by the British seized. Thither the troops, that could be squeezed Out of the Punjab, Lawrence sent. Capture of Delhi September 14th 1857 A.D. The siege guns came; eight thousand went And stormed a city, which contained Some thirty thousand soldiers trained. The triumph with great loss was won Of life, including Nicholson. Massacre of Cawnpur June 25th 1857 A.D. The Cawnpur troops gave up their swords Trusting to Nana Sahib's words. Sorrow it were and shame to tell The butcher work that then befell. Havelock's Advance July 16th 1857 A.D. Havelock, victorious and brave, To Cawnpur came too late to save. September 25th 1857 A.D. Thence to Lucknow he struggled on And joined the hard pressed garrison. Second Relief of Lucknow November 17th 1857 A.D. Appointed to the chief command, Sir Colin Campbell ably planned To set the men and women free Long pent in Lucknow Residency. Returning to Cawnpur he saved Wyndham whom Tantia Topi braved. Next year a grand advance he made With thirty thousand men arrayed. Capture of Lucknow March 1858 A.D. At cost of some six hundred lives The rebels from Lucknow he drives In twenty days. This fatal blow Deprives of hope the stubborn foe. Sir Hugh Rose's Campaign January 1858 A.D. Sir Hugh Rose, with the opening year, Begins from Mhow his proud career Of victory. Nor rebel force Nor raging sun could stay his course, And Jhansi’s rocky citadel, In spite of Tantia Topi, fell. The Rani was at Gwalior slain In battle, when that fort was ta'en; But Tantia Topi, captured late, Was tried and hanging was his fate.
Indian History Poem- Part 31: Battles, Wars, Annexations and the Railways.
12-02-2018 09:53 AM
The 31st part of a rare metrical ‘Indian History poem’, 1897 describes the period mired with wars, battles and annexations of Indian native princely states. It also documents the introduction of state schools, postal service and railways in India by Lord Dalhousie. Image 1: The Royal Necropolis at Golconda, Hyderabad. Image 2: Plan of the battle of Sobraon The images are from the rare 1880 book (two volumes) Cassell’s Illustrated History of India by James Grant. Battle of Mudki December 18th 1845 A.D. Weary with marching all day long, Gough's force defeats an army strong Of Sikhs at Mudki, though the fight Lasts till the middle of the night. Battle of Firozshah December 21st 1845 A.D. The British troops o'er heaps of slain Into the camp an entrance gain At Firozshah, and with the Sikhs All through the night confusedly mix, At morn the victory is completed; The Sikhs are driven out defeated. Battles of Aliwal and Sobraon January-February 1846 A.D. Smith drove the Sikhs at Aliwal Into the Sutlej. Last of all Sepoys with English soldiers vied To break the Khalsa's martial pride, Storming Sobraon camp defended By thirty thousand Sikhs. Thus ended Treaty of Lahore March 1846 A.D. The deadly struggle. At Lahore The peace is signed. The Sikhs no more Across the Sutlej land possess. Their powerful army is made less, To be declared of Kashmir king, A million pounds pays Golab Singh. Hardinge succeeded by Dalhousie 1848 A.D. As Hardinge, now a Lord, retires, Dalhousie his high post acquires. April 1848 A.D. When Anderson and Vans Agnew Were killed at Mooltan, war anew Broke out, and Edwardes long unaided The lands of hostile Sikhs invaded. Battle of Chilianwala January 1849 A.D. At last Gough moved and fought till night A bloody indecisive fight At Chilianwala, where long since The Greek had met the Indian prince. Battle of Gujrat February 1849 A.D. Fell Multan. The last stand was made By Sikhs with Afghan horse arrayed Near Gujrat on the Chenab's bank, Where the Sikh star of freedom sank. Before the British guns they reeled And fled disordered from the field. Annexation of the Punjab. By John and Henry Lawrence ruled The Punjab, now annexed, was schooled To law and order. Dhulip Singh In England lived no more a king. Second Burmese War 1851 A.D. In the next war with Burma, soon The British troops were in Rangoon, Annexation of Pegu Advanced to Prome, Pegu annexed, At which the people were not vexed. Satara, Haidarabad 1849-1853 A.D. With Native States Dalhousie's plan Is to annex whene'er he can. He had annexed Satara state, Because the dying Prince too late An heir adopted. Haidarabad, To pay its own contingent, had To assign Berar. Prospered the realm, When Salar Jung was given the helm. Death of Baji Rao 1853 A.D. When Baji Rao his course had run, Nana Sahib, his adopted son, What private wealth to him belonged Inherited, but still felt wronged. He was not given what most he wanted, The pension to his father granted. Jhansi, Nagpur and Oudh annexed 1853-1856 A.D. The Jhansi Rani was not pleased, When her dead husband's realm was seized. Nagpur 'twas lawful to declare British. The Raja left no heir. The last and greatest annexation, Which caused the widest indignation Was that of Oudh, which long had groaned Under misgovernment enthroned. Dalhousie retires 1856 A.D. 'Twas then with toil incessant spent Dalhousie home to England went. His Internal Policy. By him was fixed State Education Which students led by slow gradation From native village school to college Teaching the highest kind of knowledge, Canals and highways broad were made, Two hundred lines of rail he laid. Cheap postage he to India gave, And made the electric spark her slave. Canning and War with Persia 1853 A. D. When Canning first in India lands, The Persian king has laid his hands On Herat. Outram takes Bushire And makes the Persian troops retire At Khushab. Then the Shah thinks fit To give up Horst, and submit.