Vasai-Virar with a population of 1.2 million, is the fifth largest city of Maharashtra. It falls under the Palghar district and is part of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region. The literacy rate is over 88 percent and 40 percent of the population is part of the workforce. Marathi is the native and most spoken language. The city is located on the northern bank of the Vasai Creek, which is part of the estuary of the Ulhas River. This region is amongst the most densely populated, urbanized and industrialized settlements of Mumbai with many small and medium scale industrial units. Historically, the region had been part of the kingdoms of the Chalukyas of Karnataka, the Silharas of Konkan, the Yadavas of Devagiri before coming under the control of the Muslim rulers of Gujarat. The city came under the control of the Portuguese in 1534 and functioned as the Northern Capital of the Portuguese, second only to Goa. In the 18th century, the fort was taken over by the Maratha army and fell in 1739 after a three-year-long campaign. The British took over the territory from the Marathas in the First Anglo-Maratha War. The Palghar district lies in the northernmost part of the Konkan lowlands of Maharashtra and Vaitarna is the main river flowing through the district. Palghar was carved out from the old Thane district in 2014, and the total population of the district is close to 3 million today. Indias first atomic power plant at Tarapur lies in this district and apart from the numerous industries, the fishing ports and Chickoo production contribute significantly to the economy.